Application of Ultrasonic Spray Coating in the Fabrication of Perovskite Solar Cells

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Solar energy, an abundant renewable resource, plays an essential role in improving energy structure. As a synthetic material, perovskite has gained significant attention after its first application in photovoltaic power generation in 2009, due to its outstanding performance, low cost, and high commercial value. Its energy conversion efficiency has soared from 3.8% to 25.2% within a short span of just 10 years, making it widely recognized by scholars and industry experts as a leading representative in the next generation of affordable solar cell technology.

membrane electrode of perovskite solar cells

Figure 1. The membrane electrode of perovskite solar cells

Despite significant advancements in perovskite solar cells in recent years, the technology for their large-scale production has lagged. This is because controlling the nucleation and crystallization process during the fabrication of large-area perovskite films is challenging, along with managing the complex fluid dynamics involved. Currently, perovskite solar cell devices are primarily fabricated using the spin-coating method, but this method is only suitable for small-scale lab preparations and not for large-scale manufacturing. Therefore, developing appropriate techniques for large-scale thin film production and fabricating high-quality perovskite films and efficient perovskite cells is a crucial challenge to address.

Ultrasonic spray coating is a thin-film coating technology that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy to atomize liquid into tiny droplets and deposit them on a surface. The droplets produced by ultrasonic spray coating are not only uniform in size but also have a lower initial momentum, avoiding the "splattering" phenomenon.  Ultrasonic spray coating reduces waste of materials and makes it a highly suitable technology for large-scale thin-film preparation. Through relentless effort and exploration by researchers, it's been found that ultrasonic spray coating has excellent applicability in the production of perovskite solar cells and is a very promising technology for perovskite thin film preparation. We can control the deposition process of perovskite films by selecting the right ultrasonic atomizing nozzle and adjusting the ultrasonic spray parameters. Existing research has proven the compatibility of ultrasonic spray coating in preparing perovskite films on different substrate sizes and types. Based on achieving 18.53% efficiency on small-area rigid devices, the ultrasonic spray coating method was further used to manufacture small-area flexible perovskite solar cells, achieving over 16% device efficiency. Meanwhile, photoelectric conversion efficiencies of 15.07% and 13.21% were obtained in square centimeter-level spray devices based on rigid and flexible substrates, respectively.

transparent conductive oxide coatings

Figure 2.Ultrasonic Spray Coating Nozzle for perovskite spray coating by Siansonic Technology

With nearly 40 years of industry experience in ultrasonic technology,  Siansonic Technology provides customers worldwide with products based on ultrasonic and piezoelectric technology, as well as customized solutions. With its proprietary ultrasonic spray nozzle and various ultrasonic spray coating system, the company has abundant experience in the fabrication of perovskite solar cell films. We welcome discussions for potential collaboration.





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